A bibliography is a listing accrediting sources of references in an academic paper. This issue of accreditation was one of the driving reasons that led journals to take their current form. The professional field of academia had to address problems of academic fraud and conflicts on rightful recognition for research insight. Therefore, in line with the spirit of standardization that defines our world, academia settled on requiring that every publication in a journal includes a bibliography. This is considered the final section of a paper though citation is also made in-paper. There are different styles of citing, for a bibliography, and the all typically identify the details below:
- Author of article
- Title of article
- Publication platform
- Date of publishing
The different formats of referencing all have earned histories within academia and are best used for particular subjects or types of academic papers. How does a researcher narrow down on the type of referencing to feature in the bibliography? Well, it is common for the journal to include the preferred referencing styles as part of the journal article guidelines. A famous publication sticks to this routine as well – Sage. This is what the Sage journal bibliography styles refers to.
What is Sage?
Sage is one of the largest publishing platforms in the academic world. It is officially known as Sage Publications. Sage Publications was founded in 1965 by Sarah Miller and George McCune. Amusingly enough, the name Sage is derived from an acronym of the names of the two founders. Their publication is considered to be the fifth largest in the world and produces up to 1000 journals every year going by their own estimation. Sage Publications also publishers books and other literary products focused on a variety of fields such as business, management, geography, engineering and material science.
The publication is unique for emphasizing the validity of the methodology of a research undertaking rather than the article titles ground-breaking value. The publication also has an expectedly strict guideline that includes the renowned Sage Journal Publication Styles. As a researcher, you are allowed to capture the bibliography in three main styles: Sage Havard, Sage Vancouver and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles. Sage Publications also allows other specified types of referencing under what they refer to as special instances.These other styles are: the American Chemical Society (ACS). American Medical Association (AMA), American Sociological Association (ASA), Chicago and the Council of Science Editors (CSE) formats.
Sage Havard bibliography
Sage Havard format allows for only up to three authors to be identified, with the rest accredited by et al. And the in-text citation requires identification of the author’s last name and date of publications as shown below. The page number can be included here if given as in a situation of sourcing from a journal.
(author’s last name, year: page number)
The referencing list should be in alphabetical order with names beginning with upper case letters. This should go along with all the aforementioned details of the publication such as title, platform and date. The example below shows a reference list for a journal article. It is derived from a Sage Publications guide.
Rose O, Agnes W and Stanley S (2020) Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. British Medical Journal 296(4): 401–405.
For Sage Vancouver, references are listed in the order in which they appear in the academic paper. And that numbering of these references includes full points; i.e 1.,2.,etc. Abbreviation of journal titles is allowed only if this is done according to the standard in the Index Medicus. The Index Medicus is a standard abbreviation listing for medical journal titles, which is the use case for Sage Vancouver bibliography style. The style of listing authors is the same as for Sage Havard. You should stop at three and acknowledge additional authors by et al. This should not be written in italic but in standard font format. This is true for both the bibliography page and the in-text citation. The example below of journal articles referencing is derived from a Sage Vancouver official guide and captures what is detailed under this particular Sage Journal Bibliography Style.
1. Ludbrook J, Miller T and Russel A. Musculovenous pumps in the human lower limb. Am Heart J 1966; 71: 635–641.
2. Araki C, Black TL, Patberg FT, et al. Significance of calf muscle pump function in venous ulceration. J Vasc Surg 1994; 20: 872–879.
Note the numbering of the references.
American Psychological Association (APA)
This is one of the most popular citation formats in academia. Well, it is also one of the three key Sage Journal Bibliography styles. APA was founded in 1929 and is considered best suited for subjects like social science and technical research. It places emphasis on the author of the article. The in-text citation requires that the author is indicated along with the date of publication. Page numbers are also expected to be included if the source is from a print publication. See template below:
(Author Last Name, year)
The bibliography list should be in alphabetical order and contain all publication details. But for online sources, the date of retrieval is not mandatory as the URL or link will suffice. See referencing examples below retrieved from Sage Publications official bibliography guide:
Miller, A. J., Thomson, F., & Callagher, D. (1998). Affluence in suburbia. Suburbian Studies, 12(1), 9–12
World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en
Apart from the Chicago Style, the other Sage Journal Bibliography Styles are relatively recent. They are not expected to be used for Sage Publications submissions unless as identified by the guideline and editorial team on case-by-case basis. This information is shared with the researcher.
Sage Publications issues a guide to make it simpler for a researcher to determine when to select any of the three primary bibliography formats or one of the others set for selective use. A good bibliography demonstrates thoroughness of the researcher and level of organization.